On this page I am listing study and research resources that are particularly useful for myself and for people who are interested in similar things.

Historical dictionaries


Chinese Dictionaries for daily use

  • Pleco is by far the handiest cellphone dictionary app for Western learners of Chinese that is out there, followed closely by Hanping. Pleco has many free features, as well as some payable features that include a lot, a lot of dictionaries.
  • Hàndiǎn 汉典, or Z-dic in colloquial terms is the most accessible Chinese only dictionary online. It also includes the Shuowen jiezi 說文解字 and the Kangxi dictonary 康熙字典. This is currently my go-to dictionary online.
  • Bing dictionary 必应. Yes, you have heard of Bing, the search engine that Microsoft sneakily installs on your computer, which you then use to look up how to uninstall it. It also has a dictionary feature which is exceptionally good for words in their immediate context. Don’t use Google translate.

Chinese Historical dictionaries

Japanese dictionaries

  •, the best Japanese-English, English-Japanese dictionary.
  • Tangorin, a fast internet Japanese-English, English-Japanese dictionary.
  • OJAD, the Online Japanese Accent Dictionary.
  • Japans-Nederlands Woordenboek, a dictionary of Japanese-Dutch, developed at Leuven University.

Dutch dictionaries

Other dictionaries


Chinese corpora

Other resources

Digital methods

Classical Chinese

  • Chinese Texts: Chinese Philosophical Texts is a useful free online course on Classical Chinese, developed by Mark Edward Lewis, that relates to A.C. Graham’s Disputers of the Tao, a good English book on ancient Chinese thought.